~300 kya The line that will become AMH (anatomically modern humans) diverges from archaic humans
200 kya - 100 kya AMH fixes on one y chromosome and one mitochondia.
~ 100 kya AMH moves out of its isolated home into surrounding areas, most notably South Africa and the Levant
~ 75 kya The Toba super eruption eliminates archaic human populations from South Asia (but not Africa or Europe)
74 kya - 60 kya AMH populate all of South Asia
~ 60 kya and 16 kya AMH develop agriculture (perhaps a reinvention) and slowly construct a vast neolithic civilization on the Indian subcontinent
16 kya after warming for 4 ky, the Older Dryas throws Earth back into a 500 year mini ice age. It is harmless to the South Asia civilization, but it likely stresses much of the archaic human population elsewhere.
14.7 kya - 13.5 kya Meltwater Pulse 1 A floods coastal cities in South Asia
13.0 kya - 11.3 kya The Younger Dryas throws the world back into the Ice Age, which in combination with continued rapid increases in sea level, destroys the South Asia civilization and creates waves of refugees in all directions.
12.8 kya The Age of Leo begins. Egyptian Sphinx built around 12.4 kya to signify to refugees that survivors are living in what, today, is the Eastern Sahara.
~ 11 kya Refugees in Asia Minor, Turkey, etc. begin rebuilding rudimentary settlements and agriculture.
~ 6 kya agriculturally based civilizations begin forming throughout Asia and Northern Central Asia and Eastern Europe. The Sahara turns into a desert and a culture forms in Egypt along the Nile.
The rest, quite literally, is history. The real question here is that period of 44 ky from 60 kya and 16 kya. It is profoundly puzzling how the period after the ~4ky of climatological disruption could be characterized by the emergence of agriculture and civilization all over the full extent of human range, but for 44 ky the indian subcontinent, whith human populations and a broad range of stable climates had none. It is inconsistent with both logic and the oral traditions of the region. Plus, recently, an enormous city, predating at least much of the flood, has been found off the Indian coast. In other words, the default assumption should be that civilization began there and then. It may prove to be false, but it is more probable than the assumption that the Sumerians were the first civilization simply because they are the oldest we have found. "Before the Flood" is not intended to be one more 'lost civilization' popular culture book, but rather an academic assault on one specific academic premise.
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